Carmel Formation

Usage of Geologic Unit Name:
Carmel Formation of San Rafael Group (AZ*,CO*,NM*,UT*,WY*)
Jurassic, Middle*
Bajocian, late*
Callovian, early*
Geologic Province:
Black Mesa basin*
Great Basin province*
Green River basin*
Paradox basin*
Plateau sedimentary province*
San Juan basin
Uinta basin*
Uinta uplift*
Areal Extent:
Type Locality:
Intent to name, source of name, type locality not stated (Gilluly and Reeside, 1928).
Composite of measured partial sections at type locality: l) between Virgin River bridge and a point 2 mi west of Carmel village; 2) about 2 mi west of Meskin Bar, Colorado River; 3) about 2 mi east of Escalante; 4) Halls Valley near Burr trail; 5) head of Parunuweap Canyon; 6) Dry Canyon, about 2 mi above junction with Paria River. Named for Mount Carmel, sec. 8, T. 41 N., R. 7 W., Kane Co., UT (Gregory and Moore, 1931).
Reference sections designated at: 1) N/2 SW/4 SW/4 sec. 29, E/2 SE/4 SE/4 sec. 30, T. 34 S., R. 3 E., Garfield Co., UT, and; 2) SW/4 SW/4 sec. 1, SE/4 SE/4 sec. 2, T. 41 N., R. 8 E., Coconino Co., AZ (Peterson and Pipiringos, 1979).

(alphabetical): Co-op Creek Limestone Member (UT), Crystal Creek Member (UT*), Homestake Limestone Member (UT*), Judd Hollow Member (AZ*,UT*) or Judd Hollow Tongue (AZ*,UT*), /Kolob Limestone Member (UT), Paria River Member (UT*), Wiggler Wash Member (UT*), Winsor Member (UT*).

Unit Name History:
First used as basal formation in the San Rafael Group (new) in San Rafael Swell, Emery Co, UT (Gilluly and Reeside, 1928). Overview, type locality and source of name stated (Gregory and Moore, 1931). Revised, Homestake Limestone Member assigned (Mackin, 1954). Overview (Harshbarger and others, 1957). Eastern areal limits described (Wright and others, 1962). Western areal limits; Overview (Schultz and Wright, 1963). Revised, Judd Hollow Tongue named (Phoenix, 1963). Isotopic dating (Marvin and others, 1965). Revised, assigned Kolob, Crystal Creek, Paria River, Winsor, and Wiggler Wash members (Thompson and Stokes, 1970). Areal limits (O'Sullivan and Craig, 1973). Mapped 1:24k in southwest Moffat Co., CO (Rowley and Hansen, 1979). Reference; Revised (Peterson and Pipiringos, 1979). Areal limits (Blakey and others, 1983). Overview (Chapman, 1989). Isotopic dating; Overview (Hintze and others,


Gilluly, James and Reeside, J.B., Jr., 1928, Sedimentary rocks of the San Rafael Swell and some adjacent areas in eastern Utah, IN Shorter contributions to general geology, 1927: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper, 150-D, p. D61-D110.

Gregory, H.E. and Moore, R.C., 1931, The Kaiparowits region, a geographic and geologic reconnaissance of parts of Utah and Arizona: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper, 164, 161 p.

Mackin, J.H., 1954, Geology and iron ore deposits of the Granite Mountain area, Iron County, Utah: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies Map, MF-l4, 1 sheet, scale 1:12,000.

Harshbarger, J.W., Repenning, C.A. and Irwin, J.H., 1957, Stratigraphy of the uppermost Triassic and the Jurassic rocks of the Navajo country: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper, 291, 74 p.

Wright, J.C., Shawe, D.R. and Lohman, S.W., 1962, Definition of members of Jurassic Entrada Sandstone in east-central Utah and west-central Colorado: American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 46, no. 11, p. 2057-2070.

Phoenix, D.A., 1963, Geology of the Lees Ferry area, Coconino County, Arizona: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin, 1137, 86 p.

Schultz, L.G. and Wright, J.C., 1963, Bentonite beds of unusual composition in the Carmel Formation, southwest Utah; Article 98, IN Geological Survey research 1962; short papers in geology, hydrology, and topography: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper, 450-E, p. E67-E72.

Marvin, R.F., Wright, J.C. and Walthall, F.G., 1965, K-Ar and b-Sr ages of biotite from the Middle Jurassic part of the Carmel Formation, Utah, IN Geological Survey research 1965: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper, 525-B, p. B104-107.

Thompson, A.E. and Stokes, W.L., 1970, Stratigraphy of the San Rafael Group, southwest and south central Utah: Utah Geological and Mineral Survey Bulletin, no. 87, 53 p.

O'Sullivan, R.B. and Craig, L.C., 1973, Jurassic rocks of northeast Arizona and adjacent areas, IN James, H.L., ed., Guidebook of Monument Valley and vicinity, Arizona and Utah: New Mexico Geological Society Guidebook, no. 24, p. 79-85.

Rowley, P.D. and Hansen, W.R., 1979, Geologic map of the Plug Hat quadrangle, Moffat County, Colorado: U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Quadrangle Map, GQ-1514, 1 sheet, scale 1:24,000.

Peterson, Fred and Pipiringos, G.N., 1979, Stratigraphic relationships of the Navajo Sandstone to Middle Jurassic formations in parts of southern Utah and northern Arizona, IN Unconformities, correlations, and nomenclature of some Triassic and Jurassic rocks, Western Interior United States: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper, 1035-B, p. B1-B43, Supersedes 1979, U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report, OF-79-281, 179 p.

Blakey, R.C., Peterson, Fred, Caputo, M.V., Voorhees, B.J., Geddes, D.J. and Geesaman, R.C., 1983, Paleogeography of Middle Jurassic continental, shoreline, and shallow marine sedimentation, southern Utah, IN Reynolds, M.W., and Dolly, E.D., editors, Mesozoic paleogeography of the west-central United States: Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists, Rocky Mountain Section, Rocky Mountain Paleogeography Symposium, v. 2, p. 77-100.

Chapman, M.G., 1989, Implications of rhyolitic ignimbrite boulders in the Middle Jurassic Carmel Formation of southern Utah: Geological Society of America, Geology, v. 17, no. 3, p. 281-284.

Hintze, L.F., Anderson, R.E. and Embree, G.F., 1994, Geologic map of the Motoqua and Gunlock quadrangles, Washington County, Utah: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Series Map, I-2427, 7 p., 1 sheet, scale 1:24,000.

Rice, Jonathan Aaron; Loope, David B., 1990, Wind-reworked carbonates, Permo-Pennsylvanian of Arizona and
Nevada: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 103, no. 2, p. 254-267.

Kowallis, Bart J., Christiansen, Eric H., Deino, Alan L., Zhang, Chengning., Everett, Brent H., 2001, The record of Middle Jurassic volcanism in the Carmel and Temple Cap formations of southwestern Utah: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 113, no. 3, p. 373-387.

Taylor, Paul D; Wilson, Mark A., 1999, Middle Jurassic bryozoans from the Carmel Formation of
southwestern Utah: Journal of Paleontology, vol.73, no.5, p. 816-830.

de Gibert, J M; Ekdale, A. A., 1999,Trace fossil assemblages reflecting stressed environments in the Middle Jurassic Carmel Seaway of central Utah: Journal of Paleontology, v. 73, no. 4, p. 711-720.

Bannister, Kirsten M., 1998, Sedimentation, stratigraphy, and paleoenvironments of the lower members of the Carmel Formation (Middle Jurassic, southwestern Utah):
In, Eleventh Keck research symposium in Geology; proceedings, Mendelson, Carl V., Mankiewicz, Carol (eds), Keck Research Symposium in Geology, v. 11, p. 201-204.

Charette, Emily K., 1998, Taphonomy and paleoecology of a Middle Jurassic fossil assemblage, Carmel Formation, Southwest Utah: In, Eleventh Keck research symposium in Geology; proceedings Mendelson, Carl V., and Mankiewicz, Carol (eds), Keck Research Symposium in Geology, v. 11, p .205-208.

Wilson, Mark A, 1997, Trace fossils, hardgrounds and ostreoliths in the Carmel Formation (Middle Jurassic) of southwestern Utah. In, Mesozoic to Recent geology of Utah, Geology Studies, v. 42, Part 2, p. 6-9.

Tang, Carol M., and Bottjer, David J., 1997, Low-diversity faunas of the Middle Jurassic Carmel Formation and their paleobiological implications In, Mesozoic to Recent geology of Utah, Link, Paul Karl and Kowallis, Bart J., editors, Geology Studies, v. 42, Part 2, p. 10-14.

Blakey, Ronald C., Havholm, Karen G., Jones, Lawrence S., 1996, Stratigraphic analysis of eolian interactions with marine and fluvial deposits, Middle Jurassic Page Sandstone and Carmel Formation, Colorado Plateau, U.S.A.: Journal of Sedimentary Research, v. 66, no. 2, p.324-342.

Blakey, Ronald C; Parnell, Roderic A, Jr., 1995, Middle Jurassic magmatism; the volcanic record in the eolian Page Sandstone and related Carmel Formation, Colorado Plateau: In, Jurassic magmatism and tectonics of the North American Cordillera; Miller, David M., and Busby, Cathy: Geological Society of America, Special Paper, v. 299, p. 393-411.

Tang, Carol M., 1994, Mid-Jurassic marine invertebrate assemblages from the Carmel Formation of southern and central Utah: PaleoBios, v. 16, no. 1, Suppl., pp.13.

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Last modified: 1/7/2011