This view shows the earthworks at Mound City, including the border wall, ceremonial field, and burial mounds. Redbud trees are blooming in the forest on the opposite side of the ceremonial complex.

It is unclear what happened to the Hopewell cultural tradition and peoples. By A.D. 400 that Hopewell cultural tradition of building mounds, earthworks, and monumental architecture had ended, and the old ceremonial/burial sites were abandoned. Archaeologists note that trade, art, and ritual traditions also ended or diminished in significance as a new way of life in the region emerged. The new way of living included the introduction of the bow-and-arrow weaponry (over spear and atlatl) and the introduction of corn (maize from Mexico) as a source of food. Small settlements were replace with larger villages. Their populations possibly became more independently self-sustaining and inwardly focused, and less supportive of regional governance and religion.
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