Introduction to Geology

Introduction to Geology

Quiz 6 - Faults, Earthquakes, and Landscapes

1. Causes of crustal deformation include:
a. igneous activity.
b. isostatic readjustments in the crust.
c. gravitational heat convection in the upper mantle.
d. all of the above.

2. Anticlines, synclines, domes, and basins are examples of:
a. folds.
b. features associated with faulting.
c. occur only in igneous rocks.
d. none of the above.

3. A large-scale structural formation of rock strata formed by tectonic downwarping of previously flat lying strata resulting in a geological depression is called:
a. a plunging fold.
b. an anticline.
c. a dome.
d. a basin.

4. Strike and dip represents:
a. a method to describe the orientation of geologic features such as joints, faults, or layers exposed on the earth surface.
b. is a method to help resolve a scientific dispute.
c. is a method perfected to study earthquake motion.
d. is a method to determine the composition of rocks and minerals found in fault zones.

5. In geologic terms, a joint is:
a. a simple crack in a rock that displays no apparent offset.
b. a type of fault caused by crustal extension.
c. a place where geologists go to resolve research problems.
d. a rolled up organic substance that is still illegal in many states, but is sometimes used to ponder hypotheses.

6. On a reverse fault:
a. the hanging wall moves down relative to the foot wall.
b. the foot wall moves up relative to the hanging wall.
c. the foot wall moves horizontally relative to the hanging wall.
d. the hanging wall moves up relative to the foot wall.
e. none of the above.

7. Crustal compression is more likely to form:
a. normal faults.
b. thrust faults and reverse faults.
c. strike-slip and transform faults.
d. oblique-slip faults and normal faults.

8. The location on the surface above where, at depth in the Earth's crust, an earthquake rupture begins is called:
a. a focus.
b. an epicenter.
c. a joint.
d. a creep.

9. Which of the follow statements is not true?
a. An earthquake fault is an active fault that has a history of producing earthquakes.
b. Not all faults are active or are considered earthquake faults.
c. All faults are actively capable of producing earthquakes.
d. Active earthquake faults can produce both earthquakes and creep.

10. The first to arrive at a distant location from an earthquake is:
a. a shear (S) wave.
b. a compression (P) wave.
c. a sound (S) wave.
d. a rupture.
e. none of the above.

11. The measure of ground shaking describing the local severity of an earthquake in terms of its effects on the Earth’s surface and on humans and their structures is called:
a. earthquake magnitude.
b. Richter scale.
c. earthquake intensity.
d. P-waves and S-waves.

12. Rift valleys, like the Great African Rift Valley, form as a result of:
a. crustal compression.
b. crustal extension.
c. stress and strain.
d. ductile deformation.

13. Where a fault plane intersects the land's surface is called a:
a. joint.
b. fault line.
c. fault zone.
d. fault system.
e. earthquake fault.

14. Landscape features associated with strike-slip faults include:
a. offset streams.
b. linear valleys.
c. shutter ridges.
d. sag ponds.
e. all of the above.

15. Polished and striated (scratched) rock surfaces produced by friction along a fault; they appear a scratches on a rock surface is called:
a. slickensides
b. fault gauge
c. mylonite
d. fault breccia

16. What causes tsunamis?
a. All volcanic eruptions cause tsunamis.
b. All earthquakes cause tsunamis.
c. Tsunamis are caused by displacement of the bedrock under an ocean or body of water of any size.
d. All of the above.

Clues where to find answers.