Introduction to Geology

Introduction to Geology

Quiz 11 - Rivers, Streams and Groundwater

1. The circulation of water among the hydrosphere, atmosphere, solid Earth, and biosphere is called:
a. uniformitarianism
b. hydrologic cycle
c. transpiration
d. the water system
e. precipitation

2. The process by which water in plants is transferred as water vapor to the atmosphere is called:
a. precipitation.
b. evaporation.
c. transpiration.
d. condensation.

3. What causes the rainshadow effect?
a. Mountain ranges partially blocks the flow of moist air, forcing precipitation on the prevailing windward (upwind) side.
b. More arid conditions occur on the downwind side of mountain ranges.
c. Rainshadows occurs on the leeward side of a high volcanoes, such as on the Hawaiian Islands.
d. all of the above.

4. What would qualify as a 9th order stream?
a. A stream flowing out from a melting ice field high in a mountain range
b. A brook flowing from a canyon in a mountain range
c. A stream that only flows intermittently during wet seasons
d. A large river like the Mississippi River near where it flows into the ocean

5.Which river has the largest discharge?
a. Nile
b. Amazon
c. Yangtze
d. Congo
e. Mississippi

6. The measure of the amount of water associated with a stream or river is called:
a. runoff.
b. divide.
c. discharge.
d. gradient.

7. Which of these factors contributes to stream velocity?
a. stream gradient
b. stream channel size
c. stream channel shape
d. all of the above.

8. What is stream discharge?
a. a stream's cross-sectional area multiplied by its velocity
b. the volume of a stream divided by it's cross-sectional area
c. the width of a stream time it's depth
d. the amount of water flowing past a certain point in a given amount of time
e. both a and d

9. The rolling and hopping motion of sediment particles on the stream bed caused by stream flow is called:
a. suspension.
b. saltation.
c. bedload.
d. gravel.
e. all of the above.

10. Rivers tend to constantly change their course over a floodplain over time. This process is called:
a. a change in gradient.
b. a change in base level.
c. meandering.
d. levee formation.
e. all of the above.

11. What kind of drainage pattern are randomly shaped systems that commonly form on heterogeneous bedrock, such as flat-lying sediments or sedimentary rocks where there is nothing to influence the flow of water?
a. deranged drainage pattern.
b. trellis drainage pattern.
c. radial drainage pattern.
d. dendritic drainage pattern.

12. What is the downward limit of stream erosion in an area called?
a. head
b. water table
c. gradient
d. discharge
e. base level

13. What is the name for a porous and permeable rock or sediment layer, such as a sand or sandstone, containing groundwater that can be used to supply wells.
a. aquifer
b. aquitard
c. aquiclude
d. water table

14. The ability for rocks or sediment to allow the movement of groundwater is called:
a. porosity.
b. permeability.
c. discharge.
d. artesian.
e. drawdown.

15. The interval between the water table and the land surface in most places is called:
a. phreatic zone.
b. vadose zone.
c. capillary fringe.
d. cone of depression.

16. What term is used to describe the height that groundwater will rise in a confined well under artesian water pressure?
a. spring
b. head
c. drawdown
d. cone of depression

17. A stream that contributes water to the zone of saturation of groundwater and develops bank storage:
a. an influent stream.
b. an effluent stream.
c. a levee.
d. an aquifer.

18. Over pumping of an aquifer results in:
a. land subsidence.
b. loss of wildlife habitats.
c. salt water intrusion in coastal regions.
d. all of the above.

19. Which of the following would be considered a-point source of water pollution?
a. a landfill
b. oil and other waste from trucks and automobiles
c. pesticides and fertilizers used in agriculture
d. air pollution

20. A region underlain by limestone that has subterranean erosion is called:
a. a cavern.
b. karst.
c. a floodplain.
d. a delta.

21. Natural features formed by the accumulation of freshwater limestone (travertine) on the roof, walls, and floors of a cavern are called:
a. speleothems.
b. stalagmites.
c. stalactites.
d. flowstone.

Clues where to find answers.