Introduction to Earth Science

Introduction to Earth Science

Quiz 9 - Weathering, Mass Wasting, and Erosion

1. Which of these best describe weathering?
a. the transfer of rock material by gravity
b. the mechanical and chemical disintegration of rock on the surface of the earth
e. the chemical breakdown of a rock
d. the removal of material by water or air

2. Mechanical weathering includes:
a. biological activity.
b. unloading.
c. frost wedging.
d. thermal expansion.
e. all of the above.

3. What is the most important agent of chemical weathering on Earth?
a. oxygen
b. carbon dioxide
c. carbonic acid
d. water

4. What process of combining elements with oxygen ions? A mineral that is exposed to air may undergo this process:
a. hydrolysis
b. hydration
c. oxidation
d. carbonation

5. Which common minerals when they weather tend to break down and convert to clays?
a. quartz and gypsum
b. gypsum and calcite
c. calcite and quartz
d. feldspar and mafic minerals

6. Which of these common minerals is most weathering resistant on the Earth's surface?
a. quartz
b. olivine
c. biotite mica
d. potassium feldspar
e. calcite

7. When granite is weathered, what happens to most quartz?
a. It is broken down to form clay minerals.
b. It is broken down to oxide minerals.
c. It remain virtually unchanged, becoming mostly gravel, sand, and silt.
d. It dissolves and becomes part of seawater.

8. When granite is weathered, what happens to most feldspar?
a. It is mostly broken down to form clay minerals.
b. It is broken down to form oxide minerals.
c. It completely dissolves and becomes part of seawater.
d. It remain virtually unchanged, becoming gravel, sand, and silt.

9. What is the origin of the abundance of rounded boulders of granite in arid regions such as in mountainous landscapes in southern California?
a. Groundwater seeps into fractures in the granite, causing chemical weathering along the margins sharp edges and corners along the fractures.
b. Durable granite cores of blocks of unfractured granite tend to escape weathering longer.
c. As erosion strips away the saprolite (weathered granite), the hard rounded cores of blocks of granite accumulate on the surface.
d. All the choices are correct.

10. What is the layer of weathered rock and mineral fragments located between the bedrock and the surface in most places?
a. humus
b. gravel
c. alluvium
d. regolith

11. Loose and incoherent surficial deposits usually found on or along the base of a slope and brought their chiefly by gravity is called:
a. colluvium.
b. alluvium.
c. laterite.
d. loam.

12. Which of the following is included as a component of soil?
a. mineral matter
b. organic matter
c. water and gases
d. All choices are correct.

13. Which of these are the zone of accumulation in a typical soil profile?
a. the O horizon
b. the A horizon
c. the B horizon
d. the C horizon

Question 14 applies to the diagram below.
landslide quiz image
14. What forces and processes are responsible for the features illustrated on the diagram?
a. landsliding
b. mass wasting
c. gravity
d. All choices are correct.

15. What is the name of a landslide that occurs in volcanic regions that can result in a debris flow or debris flood containing volcanic material that can travel long distances downstream?
a. a slump
b. an avalanche
c. an earth flow
d. a lahar