Introduction to Earth Science

Introduction to Earth Science

Quiz 7 - Fault Systems and Earthquakes

1. Continental crust isostatically rises above sea level because:
a. continental crust is denser than ocean crust.
b. ocean crust is thicker than continental crust.
c. continental crust contains more granitic rocks than ocean crust, and granitic rocks are less dense than ocean crustal rocks.
d. none of the above.

2. A fold in layers of rock (strata) where the concave side faces down, with strata sloping downward on both sides from a common crest [axis] is called:
a. a syncline
b. an anticline.
c. a dome.
d. a plunging fold.

3. The term strike and dip refers to:
a. a method to describe the orientation of geologic features such as joints, faults, or layers exposed on the earth surface.
b. a method of measuring the thickness and age of rock layers.
c. a method of measuring movement along a fault zone.
d. a method to help resolve a scientific dispute.

4. On a reverse fault:
a. the hanging wall moves down relative to the foot wall.
b. the foot wall moves up relative to the hanging wall.
c. the foot wall moves horizontally relative to the hanging wall.
d. the hanging wall moves up relative to the foot wall.
e. none of the above.

5. Where a well-defined fault plane intersects the land's surface is called a:
a. joint.
b. fault line.
c. fault zone.
d. fault system.
e. earthquake fault.

6. When rocks are exposed to great pressure they will deform (change shape) or fracture. The amount of deformation on object experiences compared to its original size and shape is called:
a. stress.
b. strain.
c. compression.
d. extension.

7. Horizontal compression in the Earth's crust is more likely to form:
a. normal faults.
b. thrust faults and reverse faults.
c. strike-slip and transform faults.
d. oblique slip and normal faults.

8. The location underground where the rocks first start to fracture, generating an earthquake is called:
a. the epicenter.
b. the rupture zone.
c. the focus.
d. a seismograph.

9. The gradual aseismic movement (displacement) displayed by a fault over time is called:
a. an earthquake fault.
b. an earthquake.
c. fault rupture.
d. creep.

10. The first to arrive at a distant location from an earthquake is:
a. a shear (S) wave.
b. a compression (P) wave.
c. a sound (S) wave.
d. a rupture.
e. none of the above.

11. An earthquake may be described as a single shock wave or a complex pattern of shock waves taking place over a period of time. What is the most powerful in a series of earthquakes?
a. creep
b. a foreshock
c. a main shock event
d. an aftershock

12. A measure of ground shaking describing the local severity of an earthquake in terms of its effects on the Earth's surface and on humans and their structures is called:
a. earthquake magnitude.
b. a Richter scale.
c. earthquake intensity.
d. all of the above.

13. A landscape feature associated with a raised elongated block of the earth's crust lying (or rising) between two faults is called:
a. a graben.
b. a horst.
c. a rift valley.
d. an anticline.

14. Landscape features associated with strike-slip faults include:
a. offset streams.
b. linear valleys.
c. shutter ridges.
d. sag ponds.
e. all of the above.

15. A polished and striated rock surface produced by friction along a fault; they appear a scratches on a rock surface are called:
a. mylonite.
b. fault gouge.
c. slickensides.
d. fault breccia.