Introduction to Earth Science

Introduction to Earth Science

Quiz 12 - Streams, Rivers, and Water Underground
1. The circulation of water among the hydrosphere, atmosphere, solid Earth, and biosphere is called:
a. the hydrologic cycle.
c. hydrology.
d. geohydrology.
e. transpiration.

2. What two processes add water moisture to the air?
a. condensation and precipitation
b. evaporation and transpiration
b. transpiration and condensation
d. precipitation and evaporation

3. Which river has the largest discharge?
a. Nile
b. Amazon
c. Yangtze
d. Mississippi

4. A measure of the volume of water to pass a given point on a stream bank per unit of time (usually expressed in cubic meters of water per second) is called:
a. watershed.
b. runoff.
c. stream gradient.
d. stream discharge.

5. Which of these factors contributes to stream velocity?
a. stream gradient
b. stream channel size
c. stream channel shape
d. All choices are correct.

6. The rolling and hopping motion of sediment particles on the stream bed caused by stream flow is called:
a. suspension.
b. saltation.
c. bedload.
d. gravel.

7. Rivers tend to constantly change their course over a floodplain over time. This process is called:
a. change in gradient.
b. change in base level.
c. meandering.
d. levee formation.
e. all of the above.

8. When floodwaters spread out onto a floodplain, they slow down, depositing sediments along the outer margins of a stream channel, resulting in the build up of:
a. meanders.
b. cutbanks.
c. natural levees.
d. splays.

9. A feature on a river delta where a stream distributary channel branches off and flows away from a main stream channel is called:
a. a tributary.
b. a wetland.
c. a mouth.
d. a distributary.

10. What kind of erosional drainage patterns are common in fractured and faulted hard bedrock (such as in granite or other igneous and metamorphic rocks)?
a. dendritic drainage patterns
b. trellis drainage patterns
c. rectangular drainage patterns
d. radial drainage patterns

11. What is the downward limit of stream erosion called?
a. head
b. water table
c. gradient
d. discharge
e. base level

12. The ability for rocks or sediment to allow the movement of groundwater is called:
a. porosity.
b. permeability.
c. discharge.
d. artesian.
e. drawdown.

13. A porous and permeable rock or sediment layer, such as a sand or sandstone, containing groundwater that can be used to supply wells is called:
a. an aquifer.
b. an aquitard.
c. an aquiclude.
d. All choices are correct.
14. The interval between the water table and the land surface is called:
a. phreatic zone.
b. vadose zone.
c. capillary fringe.
d. All choices are correct.

15. When natural water pressure of a well tapped into a confined aquifer rises to the surface or above it is called:
a. a spring.
b. an artesian well.
c. a water table.
d. a cone of depression.

16. A stream that contributes water to the zone of saturation of groundwater is called:
a. an influent stream.
b. an effluent stream.
c. bank storage.
d. All choices are correct.

17. Over pumping of groundwater can result in:
a. subsidence of the land surface.
b. harm to wild life by cutting of water supply to springs and streams.
c. salt water intrusion into coastal areas.
d. All choices are correct.

18. Which of the following would be considered a non-point source of pollution?
a. a smoke stack at an oil refinery
b. an unintended release of sewage from a poorly designed sewage treatment facility
c. pesticides and herbicides released by poorly managed agriculture activity
d. a poorly designed landfill.

19. A region underlain by limestone that has subterranean erosion is called:
a. a cavern.
b. a cave.
c. a sinkhole.
d. karst.

20. Natural features formed by the accumulation of freshwater limestone (travertine) on the roof, walls, and floors of a cavern are called:
a. speleothems.
b. stalagmites.
c. stalactites.
d. troglodytes.