Introduction to Earth Science

Introduction to Earth Science and Astronomy

Quiz 1 - Introduction to Earth Science

1. What is the branch of Earth Science concerned with understanding the composition of the Earth and the physical changes occurring in it, based on the study of rocks, minerals, and sediments, their structures and formations, and their processes of origin and alteration. 
a. Physical geology
b. Meteorology
c. Hydrology
d. Historical geology

The overall goal of science is:
a. to create better technology.
b. to develop hypotheses and theories.
c. to discover the origins of humans.
d. to find the origin of the universe.
e. to discover underlying patterns in the natural world.

2. Which of the following is a well-tested and widely accepted view that best explains certain observable facts?
a. theory
b. scientific method
c. rule
d. hypothesis
e. observation

3. The tentative explanation for an observation, phenomenon, or scientific problem that can be tested by further investigation is called a:
a. fact.
b. theory.
c. hypothesis.
d. observation.
e. scientific law.

4. A pure chemical substance consisting of one type of atom distinguished by its atomic number is called:
a. an atom.
b. an element.
c. a nucleus.
d. a proton.

5. Chemical substances classified as salts are held together by:
a. covalent bonds.
b. ionic bonds.
c. metallic bonds.
d. Van der Waals bonds.

6. Isotopes of an element have:
a. the same number of protons and neutrons.
b. the same number of neutrons, but different number of protons.
c. equal number of protons, but different number of neutrons.
d. different numbers of electrons, neutrons and protons.

7. Density is usually defined as a measure of mass (in grams) divided by the volume in in cubic centimeters (cm3) or milliliters (ml). What is the average density of seawater?
a. 1.027 gm/ml
b. 0.917 gm/ml
c. 1.0 gm/ml
d. 0.986 gm/ml

9. What part of the electromagnetic spectrum listed below has the "greatest energy" (based on highest frequency or shortest wavelength)?
a. UV (ultraviolet rays)
b. visible light
c. thermal infrared rays
d. microwaves
e. radio waves

10. Who was first to provide evidence that explained Heliocentrism Theory that the Sun, not the Earth, was the center of our Solar System?
a. Aristotle
b. Nicolaus Copernicus
c. Galileo Galilei
d. Johannes Kepler
e. Isaac Newton

11. Which scientist used observational information from earlier scientists to resolve the Law of Universal Gravitation?
a. Aristotle
b. Galileo Galilei
c. Copernicus
d. Johannes Kepler
e. Isaac Newton

12. What is the name of the theory that generally states that "the physical, chemical, and biological laws that operate today have also operated in the geologic past," or more simply, "the present is key to the past."
a. hypothesis
b. superposition
c. uniformitarianism
d. historical geology
e. catastrophism

13. The geologic time scale is used to name periods of geologic time in Earth's history. Segments of time periods are given names like Paleozoic Era, Jurassic Period, or Pleistocene Epoch. The current age of the Earth accepted by the majority of the scientific community is that Earth formed in early Precambrian time. The current estimated age of the Earth is approximately: 
a. 13.8 billion years.
b. 11,000 thousand years.
c. 7,000 years.
d. 4.55 million years.
e. 4.56 billion years.

14. Who discovered that there are other galaxies outside of the Milky Way galaxy (greatly expanding our knowledge of the size of the Universe)?
a. Aristotle
b. Galileo Galilei
c. Isaac Newton
d. Edwin Hubble

15. A light year is the astronomical measure of:
a. the distance that light can travel in a year
b. approximately 9.4607 x 1012 kilometers
c. about 6 trillion miles.
d. all of the above.

16. The Milky Way is thought to be:
a. spiral galaxy.
b. an elliptical galaxy.
c. an irregular galaxy.
d. the Observable Universe.

17. According to the Big Bang Theory, the current estimates put the age of the Observable Universe is about:
a. 13.8 billion years
b. 11,000 thousand years
c. 6,000 years
d. 4.56 million years
e. 4.56 billion years

18. An interstellar cloud within a galaxy consisting of gas and dust, typically glowing from radiant energy from stars nearby or within them, and are considered the birth place of stars and solar systems, is called:
a. a bolide.
b. a nebula.
c. a constellation.
d. a nova.

19. What is the outermost layer of the Sun that includes its thin atmosphere that extends as streaming glowing, hot plasma out into space, and is visible during a solar eclipse?:
a. the chromosphere and corona.
b. The convection zone.
c. The photosphere.
d. the radiative zone.

20. What causes the solar wind and solar storms?
a. large solar flares.
b. large solar prominences.
c. coronal mass ejections.
d. All choices are correct.

21. Which planets do not have moons?
a. Mercury and Venus
b. Mercury, Venus and Mars
c. Mercury, Venus, Jupiter, and Saturn
d. Mercury, Venus, Neptune, Uranus, and Neptune.

22. The Asteroid Belt is located between:
a. Venus and Earth.
b. Earth and Mars.
c. Mars and Jupiter.
d. Jupiter and Saturn.
e. Uranus and Neptune.

23. An object that enters the atmosphere and explodes with great force is called a:
a. galaxy.
b. comet.
c. asteroid.
d. bolide.
e. meteorite.

24. The tilt in Earth's axis is theorized to have been caused by the collision of a Mars-sized object with the Proto Earth early in the formation of the Solar System. As a result, the Earth has 4 seasons. The day of the year when the north pole axis points closest to the Sun on the longest day of the year in the northern hemisphere is the:
a. winter solstice.
b. spring equinox.
c. summer solstice.
d. fall equinox.
e. summer equinox.

25. Which of the moons orbiting a planet in the outer solar system it thought to have twice as much water (volume of oceans) than planet Earth?
a. The Moon
b. Europa
c. Ganymede
d. Enceladus