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Oceanography 101

Quiz Questions - Chapter 2 - Evolution of Life Through Time

1. Who was get credit for publishing a theory of natural selection, the fundamental concepts for the modern science of evolution?
a. Carl Linnaeus
b. Charles Darwin
c. Gregor Johann Mendel
d. James Watson and Francis Crick

2. The theory that populations that are separated environmentally can develop different features based upon an adaptation to their environment is called:
a. heredity.
b. natural selection.
c. divergent evolution.
d. convergent evolution.

3. For a species to avoid extinction, individuals must:
a. eat, survive, and reproduce.
b. deal with competion (within their own species or with other species).
c. be able to adapt to environmental changes.
d. all of the above.

4. "The total number of fossils that have been discovered, as well as to the information derived from them" is referred to as:
a. geologic time scale.
b. paleontology.
c. the fossil record.
d. fossilization.

5. Groups of these rock formations are parts of sequences that preserve the fossil record. Each of the sequences rests on the eroded surface on top of a previous sequence represented by a major regional unconformity (also called a sequence boundary). How many sequences (with their underlying unconformities) are recognized throughout North America (with equivalent features on other continents).
a. two
b. four
c. six
d. eight

6. When geologic evidence suggest that photosyntheses and the first eukaryotic cells capable of oxygen-based respiration first appear on Earth?
a. about 4.56 billion years ago
b. about 4 billion years ago
c. about 3 billion years ago
d. about 1.8 billion years ago

7. When does it appear that sexual reproduction was fully established in eukaryote organisms?
a. about 4.56 billion years ago
b. about 4 billion years ago
c. about 3 billion years ago
d. about 1.8 billion years ago

8. A mound of calcareous sediment built up of layers of lime-secreting cyanobacteria (blue-green bacteria, algae and other more primitive eukaryotic life forms) that trap sediment, creating layers accumulations is called:
a. a stromatolite.
b. a metazoan.
c. endosymbiosis.
d. Ediacaran fauna.

9. The earliest period of the Paleozoic Era when shelled organisms first appear in abundance in the sedimentary record is called the:
a. Precambrian Eon.
b. Cambrian Period.
c. Ordovician Period.
d. Devonian Period.
e. Cretaceous Period.

10. When bony fishes and sharks first flourished in the Paleozoic Era?
a. Precambrian Eon
b. Cambrian Period
c. Ordovician Period
d. Devonian Period
e. Jurassic Period

11. What period did amphibians first appear in abundance in the fossil record?
a. Ordovician Period
b. Devonian Period
c. Mississippian Period
d. Permian Period
e. Triassic Period

12. During what period did great forested swamps exist that became the source of most of the extensive coal deposits through the Appalachians and Midwest regions of North America?
a. Devonian Period
b. Pennsylvanian Period
c. Permian Period
d. Triassic Period
e. Cretaceous Period

13. The greatest mass extinction occurred at the end of this period, wiping out about 96% of marine species and 70% of land species that existed previously.
a. Ordovician Period
b. Devonian Period
c. Mississippian Period
d. Permian Period
e. Jurassic Period

14. The Age of Reptiles best applies to which time range?
a. Mesozoic Era
b. Devonian Period
c. Cenozoic Era
d. Permian Period
e. Tertiary Period

15. The dinosaurs first appear in what geologic period?
a. Pennsylvanian Period
b. Permian Period
c. Triassic Period
d. Jurassic Period
e. Cretaceous Period

16. When do birds first appear in the fossil record?
a. Pennsylvanian Period
b. Permian Period
c. Triassic Period
d. Jurassic Period
e. Tertiary Period

17. Small mammals and flowering plant first appear in abundance in which geologic period?
a. Jurassic Period
b. Permian Period
c. Triassic Period
d. Cretaceous Period
e. Tertiary Period

18. A great mass extinction, including the disappearance of dinosaurs and many forms of marine life, is believed to have been associated with a massive asteroid impact in the Yucatan region of Mexico. This occurred at the end of which period?
a. Jurassic Period
b. Permian Period
c. Triassic Period
d. Cretaceous Period
e. Tertiary Period

19. When did mammals with placental-type live birth appear in the fossil record?
a. Jurassic Period
b. Cretaceous Period
c. Paleocene Epoch
d. Eocene Epoch
e. Quaternary Period

20. The Ice Ages are associated with which geologic period?
a. Jurassic Period
b. Quaternary Period
c. Triassic Period
d. Cretaceous Period
e. Miocene Epoch

21. What is the name of the geologic epoch when human civilizations with cities first developed around the world?
a. Quaternary
b. Holocene
c. Anthropocene
e. Weshouldhavecene

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1/14/2018