Oceanography 101

Quiz Questions - Chapter 1 - Introduction to Oceanography

1. Oceans cover 71 percent of the earth surface and have an average depth of about:
a. 2,444 feet (745 meters)
b. 12,100 feet (3688 meters)
c. 22,124 feet (6743 meters)
d. 29,935 feet (8850 meters)
e. 26,161 feet (11,022 meters)

2. The overall goal of science is:
a. to create better technology.
b. to develop hypotheses and theories.
c. to discover the origins of humans.
d. to find the origin of the universe.
e. to discover underlying patterns in the natural world.

3. Which of the following is a well-tested and widely accepted view that best explains certain observable facts?
a. theory
b. scientific method
c. rule
d. hypothesis
e. observation

4. A pure chemical substance consisting of one type of atom distinguished by its atomic number is called:
a. an atom.
b. an element.
c. a nucleus.
d. a proton.

5. Except for a simply hydrogen atom, the nucleus of atoms are made up of:
a. protons and neutrons
b. neutrons and electrons
c. electrons and protons
d. none of the above

6. The number of known elements listed on the Periodic Table is:
a. 64
b. 78
c. 92
d. 108

7. There are 16 elements that are considered most abundant in Earth's physical environment. What two elements are most abundant in Earth's crust?
a. oxygen and silicon.
b. aluminum and iron.
c. hydrogen and oxygen.
d. carbon and oxygen.

8. Chemical substances classed as salts are held together by:
a. covalent bonds.
b. ionic bonds.
c. metallic bonds.
d. Van der Waal bonds.
e. none of the above.

9. Isotopes of an element have:
a. the same number of protons and neutrons.
b. the same number of neutrons, but different number of protons.
c. the same number of protons, but different number of neutrons.
d. different numbers of electrons, neutrons, and protons.

10. Which of the carbon isotopes undergoes radioactive decay?
a. 12C
b. 13C
c. 14C
d. All carbon isotopes are not stable and will undergo radioactive decay.

11. What part of the electromagnetic spectrum listed below has the greatest energy (based on highest frequency or shortest wavelength)?
a. UV (ultraviolet rays)
b. visible light
c. thermal infrared rays
d. microwaves
e. radio waves

12. Density is usually defined as a measure of mass (in grams) divided by the volume (in cubic centimeters, or cm3). What is the average density of seawater?
a. 0.917 grams/cm3
b. 1.0 grams/cm3
c. 1.027 grams/cm3
d. 0.986 grams/cm3

13. The tilt in Earth's axis is theorized to have been caused by the collision of a Mars-sized object with the Proto Earth early in the formation of the Solar System. As a result, the Earth has 4 seasons. The day of the year when the north pole axis points closest to the Sun on the longest day of the year in the northern hemisphere is the:
a. winter solstice.
b. spring equinox.
c. summer solstace.
d. fall equinox.
e. summer equinox.

14. The angular distance of a place north or south of the Earth's equator, usually expressed in degrees and minutes, and is called:
a. latitude.
b. parallels.
c. longitude.
d. meridians.

15. One degree of latitude near the south pole or near the equator is approximately:
a. zero miles.
b. 53 miles (85 kilometers)
c. 69 miles (111 kilometers)
d. 100 miles (161 kilometers)

16. In order to make an accurate map of the stars for use in ship navigation, in 1884, a point indicating the precise location of 0° East and West was designated in the cross hairs of a telescope in the Royal Observatory (located on the grounds of the National Maritime Museum in Greenwich England). This line marks the reference location of the Prime Meridian now used in all global mapping (including GPS location systems). The line on the opposite side of the globe at 180° from the Prime Meridian is called:
a. the Equator.
b. the Baseline.
c. the International Date Line.
d. Tropic of Cancer.

17. It is difficult to make a flat map of the spherical globe. A commonly used type of map of the Earth that projects lines of longitude and latitude as a perpendicular grid of squares (and does not show lines converging at the north and south poles) is called a:
a. Lambert conical projection map.
b. Mercator projection map.
c. Quadrangle projection map.
d. all of the above.

18. Who was first to provide evidence that explained Heliocentrism Theory that the Sun, not the Earth, was the center of our Solar System?
a. Aristotle
b. Nicolaus Copernicus
c. Galileo Galilei
d. Johannes Kepler
e. Isaac Newton

19. Which scientist used observational information from earlier scientists to resolve the Law of Universal Gravitation?
a. Aristotle
b. Nicolaus Copernicus
c. Galileo Galilei
d. Johannes Kepler
e. Isaac Newton

20. A light year is the astronomical measure of:
a. the distance that light can travel in a year
b. approximately 9.4607 x 1012 kilometers
c. about 6 trillion miles.
d. all of the above.

21. The Milky Way is thought to be:
a. spiral galaxy.
b. an elliptical galaxy.
c. an irregular galaxy.
d. the Observable Universe.

22. According to the Big Bang Theory, the current estimates put the age of the Observable Universe is about:
a. 13.8 billion years
b. 11,000 thousand years
c. 6,000 years
d. 4.56 million years
e. 4.56 billion years

23. The birth place of stars and solar systems are interstellar clouds called a:
a. nebula.
b. constellation.
c. red giant.
d. nova.

24. The outermost layer of the Sun is:
a. the radiative zone.
b. the convection zone.
c. the photosphere.
d. the chromosphere and corona.

25. What causes solar wind and solar storms?
a. large solar flares.
b. large solar prominences.
c. coronal mass ejections.
d. all of the above.

26. What are the 4 gas planets?
a. Mercury, Venus, Jupiter, and Saturn
b. Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars
c. Earth, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn
d. Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune.

27. Which planets do not have moons?
a. Mercury and Venus
b. Mercury, Venus and Mars
c. Mercury, Venus, Jupiter, and Saturn
d. Mercury, Venus, Neptune, Uranus, and Neptune.

28. The Asteroid Belt is located between:
a. Venus and Earth.
b. Earth and Mars.
c. Mars and Jupiter.
d. Jupiter and Saturn.
e. Uranus and Neptune.

29. An object that enters the atmosphere and explodes with great force is called a:
a. galaxy.
b. comet.
c. asteroid.
d. bolide.
e. meteorite.

30. According to the Nebular Hypothesis of the Origin of the Solar System, the current estimate put the age of the Earth is about:
a. 13.8 billion years.
b. 11,000 thousand years.
c. 6,000 years.
d. 4.56 million years.
e. 4.56 billion years.

31. Which of the moons orbiting a planet in the outer solar system it thought to have twice as much water (volume of oceans) than planet Earth?
a. The Moon
b. Europa
c. Ganymede
d. Enceladus

32. A substance that in considered a mineral must have which of the following characteristics:
a. It must be naturally occurring in the environment.
b. It must be an inorganic (never living) solid.
c. It must have crystal structure with a definite internal arrangement of atoms.
d. all of the above.

33. What is true about a rock?
a. A rock can be a mixture.
b. A rock may be composed of one or more minerals.
c. A rock may include non-mineral substances, such as water, gases, or organic matter.
d. b and c.
e. all of the above.

34. What are the three types of rocks?
a. igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic.
b. minerals, soils, and rocks.
c. weathering, transportation, and deposition.
d. igneous, sedimentary, and molten.

35. What is the name of theory that states that the physical, chemical, and biological laws that operate today have also operated in the geologic past, or more simply stated, "The present is key to the past."
a. hypothesis
b. superposition
c. uniformitarianism
d. historical geology
e. catastrophism

36. A branch of geology concerned with the systematic study of bedded rock layers and their relations in time, and the study of fossils and their locations in a sequence of bedded rocks is called:
a. stratigraphy.
b. assumption.
c. chronology.
d. catastrophism.

37.Which of the following is not a form of relative dating of geologic features?
a. using radioactivity to find the age of a rock.
b. using the law of superposition to compare the ages of rock layers.
c. comparing fossils found in rock layers from different locations.
d. placing events in their proper sequence or order without knowing their exact age in years.
e. answers b, c and d above.

38. The law that states that in any undisturbed sequence of rocks deposited in layers, and the oldest on bottom the youngest layer is on top is:
a. the Law of Original Horizontality
b. the Law of Superposition
c. the Law of Cross-Cutting Relationships
d. the Law of Inclusions

39. The relative age of a volcanic intrusion might be determined by:
a. the Law of Original Horizontality
b. the Law of Superposition
c. the Law of Cross-Cutting Relationships
d. the Law of Angular Unconformities

40. The arrow in this view of the Grand Canyon (below) points toward:
a. a disconformity
b. an angular unconformity
c. a nonconformity
d. a conformable contact

Grand Canyon