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Chapter 14 - Marine Environments

14.1
This chapter focuses on the physical, chemical, and biological factors affecting marine communities in the oceans and coastal waters.

What is a "Marine Community?"

A marine community is an area where a group of marine organisms live and interact with each other.

An “ecosystem” is defined as a community involving the interactions of living and nonliving things in an area." Marine ecosystems have distinct groups of organisms and have characteristics that result from unique combinations of physical factors that create them.

Click on thumbnail images for a larger view.

Hawaiian reef community
Fig. 14-1. A reef community in Hawaii.
14.2
Marine communities include different feeding (trophic) levels:

Tropic Levels Organisms
Tertiary consumers carnivores (larger animals, i.e. tuna, sharks, birds, sea mammals, etc)
Secondary consumers carnivores and detritus feeders (ie, small fish, crustaceans)
Primary consumers herbivores (zooplankton)
Primary producers photosynthetic bacterial - plankton - plants (focus of chapter 13)

Food Web
Fig. 14-2. Food chains and food webs can be complex.
14.3

Definitions

* Planktonic: "Floaters/drifters" (zooplankton are animals, phytoplankton are plants.)

* Nektonic: "Swimmers"

* Pelagic: means “relating to the open sea, chiefly shallow layers” Planktonic and nektonic organisms live in "open water" (more in chapter 14).

* Benthic: means “relating to, or occurring at the bottom of a body of water (oceans, lakes), relates to "bottom dwellers" (more in chapter 15).

"Benthic" applies to:
shoreline and nearshore environments (littoral and estuarine)
littoral (pertaining to the shore and very near shore of ocean or lake)
estuarine (pertaining to transition from river to ocean settings)
neritic (pertaining to the seabed in shallow ocean and deep water settings)
limnetic (pertaining to lakes)

* Terrestrial refers to “land” environments (desert, mountain, rivers, etc) - some marine predators live in terrestrial environments.

Benthic and Pelagic zones
Fig. 14-3. Benthic and pelagic zones.
Elkhorn Slough, a tidal estuary in central California between Monterey and Santa Cruz Counties
Fig. 14-4. Elkhorn slough, a tidal estuary in central California, has littoral, estuarine, neritic, and limnetic sub environments.
14.4

Feeding behaviors

* Autotrophic: Produce their own food (primary producers)
* Heterotrophic: Eat other things (living or dead) (consumers - primary, secondary, and tertiary).

Feeding strategies of heterotrophic marine organisms:
* Filter feeding: ex: shellfish
* Deposit feeding: Eat deposits of dead or decaying matter
* Carnivorous feeding: Capture and eat it!

Humpback whales join in on a feeding frenzy.
Fig. 14-5. Humpback whales and birds joining in on a feeding frenzy on smaller fish who were feeding on zooplankton.
14.5

Natural factors influencing marine life:


Physical factors:

a) Temperature (very significant!)
b) Salinity (also very significant!)
c) Tides, Waves, Currents (“energy" in the environment)
d) Water Transparency
e) Nutrients
f) pH (acidity and alkalinity)
g) Pressure (depth)
h) Dissolved Gases
i) Environmental Stability

Biological factors:

i) Competition for mates, food, and space
j) Predators

14.6

a) Temperature

Temperature governs the rate chemical and metabolic rates especially in cold-blooded organisms.
Many organisms are sensitive to changes in temperature and this results in species zonation.

Example—Different species of sharks
: Sharks can be classified as tropical, temperate, or polar, depending on the surface temperature of the ocean region they inhabit.

Tropical sharks live year round in warm temperature waters (21° - 30° C, 69.8° - 86° F). Examples include nurse shark, the tiger shark, and the bull shark. They are only comfortable in warm waters where food is plentiful, so they remain there year-round without migrating.

Sharks in Temperate regions tolerate temperatures within a range (10°-21°C, 50-69.8° F). Sharks in temperate regions tend to migrate south in the winter and north in the summer and as their food sources move up and down the coast.

Sharks in Polar regions always stay in colder waters (below 5° C, 41° F). For example, Greenland sleeper shark is adapted to living under ice floes and will not migrate.

Temperature controls an organism's metabolism
For poikilothermic ("cold blooded") organisms: every 10° C rise in temperature doubles their metabolism. Most fish, reptiles, and invertebrates are cold blooded.
For homeothermic ("warm blooded") organisms: metabolism increases with decreasing temperature to stay warm. Only mammals and birds are warm blooded.
Some species have various degrees of "thermo regulation" - ability to raise or lower their body temperature. An example in fish is Opah an Blue Fin Tuna.

Hammerhead shark
Fig. 14-6. Hammerhead sharks live in tropical waters
Great White
Fig. 14-7. Great white sharks live in temperate regions.
Polar Bears
Fig. 14-8. Polar bears are homeothermic and adapted to living on arctic ice flows.
14.7

b) Salinity

Salinity in the open ocean is typically in a "normal range" of most marine creatures (about 3.5‰ [ppt]). However, salinity is variable near landmasses (ie: tide pools, river outlets and with depth).

Different organisms have different tolerances to salinity changes. For examples, some bull sharks can tolerate both freshwater and marine water settings. Oysters can't tolerate normal seawater because of predation and food supply.

Bull Shark Oysters
Fig. 14-9. Bull shark Fig. 14-10. Oysters
14.8

c) Water transparency

Water has a high transparency. So many organisms use different strategies to survive predation.

Countershading or camouflaging help organisms hide from predators.
• Animals that display countershading are typically dark colored on top and light colored underneath.
• Animals that use camouflaging typically have skin or scales that match the habitat where they live and feed.

Migration into darker areas during the day and lighter areas at dawn and dusk is another means of survival.

Another consideration is clarity for photosynthesis.
Photic zone: The upper part of the ocean where sunlight penetrates (down to ~3,300 feet in very clear water!).
Euphotic Zone: upper ½ of photic zone where most primary production occurs.
Trout display countershading
Fig. 14-11. Trout displaying countershading.
Goosefish displaying camouflauging
Fig. 14-12. Goosefish displaying camouflaging.
14.9

d) Nutrients

Nutrients: are not "food," more like vitamins and minerals essential to life functions

• Aids in the production of food (primary production).
• Photosynthesis formula shows only basic steps.
• There are many more intermediate processes requiring nutrients to produce other complex organic compounds (proteins, carbohydrates, fats, etc).

Sources of Nutrients: Upwelling and continental weathering & erosion
Primary = nitrates and phosphates
Secondary = minerals: calcium, iron, zinc, sodium, and many others.
Coastal upwelling
Fig. 14-13. Upwelling brings nutrients to the surface where they are utilized in primary production.
14.10

e) pH (acidity and alkalinity)

Seawater averages about 8.1 on a scale from 1 – 14 (1 is acidic, 14 is basic and 7 is neutral).
Seawater is a buffered system meaning it is controlled in a range.
If it gets too acidic it dissolves CaCO3, if its too basic it precipitates CaCO3

Seawater becomes slightly more acidic near the CCD (carbonate compensation depth).

Animals with carbonate shells and tests need slightly basic (alkaline) water in order to precipitate and maintain their shells. This is a potentially HUGE problems for the oceans with the increasing accumulation of CO2 in the atmosphere and oceans.

Lycocline
Fig. 14-14. Carbonate compensation depth (CCD)
 
14.11

f) Pressure

Pressure is the same inside an organism as outside.
Organisms at great depths must be able to withstand great internal pressures.
Many species of fish have gas-filled bladders in order to maintain buoyancy.

Sperm whales hold the deep diving record for cetaceans at 3050m (10,000 ft). They can dive for over one hour in search of their main prey—squid and some fish.

Humans get the bends if they rise to the surface too quickly (causing nitrogen to boil out of the blood). The same happens to deep water fish when they are brought to the surface.
Sperm whale Nautilus
Fig. 14-15. Sperm whales can dive to great depths in search of food. Fig. 14-16. Nautilus controls pressure in it shell and changes its buoyancy.
14.12

g) Dissolved gases

There must be sufficient CO2 for plants and O2 for animals or they must: move, adapt or die.
Most ocean pollutants remove the waters ability to hold CO2 or O2.

Hypoxia and eutrophification are discussed in chapter 8).
Hypoxia kills fish
Fig. 14-17. Fish killed by hypoxia (lack of O2).
14.13

h) Environmental Stability

The open ocean is generally a very stable environment compared to shallow and nearshore environments where the factors listed above may vary wildly with weather changes and other natural and artificial causes, both physical or biological in nature. Destabilizing forces include the impacts of superstorms, undersea landslides (causing turbidity flows), and hypoxia. Reefs and coastal ecosystems can be destroyed by the effects of hurricanes, but like wildfire on land, sea life can and will re-establish itself if the physical factors (described above) normalize. Coastal communities
(ecosystems) can be heavily damaged by superstorms, but many species have evolved means to adapt to occasional events, and even take advantage of the aftermath.
Hurricane Katrina
Fig. 14-18. Hurricane Katrina
14.14

Biological factors:

i) Competition for mates, food, and space

• competition may be between members of a species or between species

j) Predators

• too many predators can wipe out a community; not enough predators cause population explosions, resource exhaustion, and collapse.

Predator (otter) with prey (fish)
Fig. 14-19. Predator and prey (seal with fish meal).
14.15

Seasonal Impacts of Food Resources in the Marine Environment

Primary productivity is a primarily function of sunlight an available nutrients. Figure 14-20 shows the primary productivity of the three zones: tropical, temperate, and polar.

Primary productivity in the tropical zone is limited not by sunlight it receives, but because a thick thermocline prevents nutrients from moving up in to the surface in the photic zone.

Primary productivity in the polar zones are most intense in the summer months when both sunlight and nutrients are available.

Primary productivity in the temperate zones have two peaks in the spring and fall. Productivity is limited in the summer months because a thermocline builds up, shutting down the nutrient supply to the upper ocean. Primary productivity increases in the spring when sunlight increases and before a strong thermocline shuts down the supply of nutrients. Productivity also increases in the fall when cooler weather breaks up thermocline (allowing upwelling of nutrients) while ample sunlight is still available to support phytoplankton growth.

Impacts on Consumers

Primary, secondary, and tertiary consumers follow the cycles of primary productivity described above. A proliferation of zooplankton (primary consumers) occurs when their food (phytoplankton) becomes increasingly available. Zooplankton populations grow at the ultimate expense of the phytoplankton, and their populations peak, phytoplankton first, then zooplankton next. Secondary and tertiary consumer populations consume the recourses, and then migrate to search of other sources of food, following the "blooms" in productivity northward in the spring and then returning south for the winter.

Figure 14-21 compares the biomass of phytoplankton and zooplankton for the tropical, temperate, and polar zones through the months of year. Figure 14-22 compares the availability of nutrients and sunlight with biomass of phytoplankton and zooplankton for the temperate zone through seasons of the year.
phytoplankton biomass by region
Fig. 14-20. Primary productivity in 3 zones.
Biomass of plankton and zooplankton
Fig. 14-21. Plankton biomass by season in three zones.
nutrients supply in temperate regions
Fig. 14-22. Temperate zone productivity by seasons.
14.16

Divisions in the Marine Environment


The Pelagic (open sea) environment is divided into the Neritic (neritos means "of the coast") and Oceanic Provinces.

Neritic (nearshore zone): Extends from shore with water less than 200 meters. It is subdivided into two zones:
* Littoral (intertidal) zone: Interval between high and low tides
* Sub-littoral zone: Below the littoral zone to a depth of 200 meters.
Coral reef
Fig. 14-23. Coral reef in the neritic zone.
14.17

Oceanic Provinces (based on depth)

* Epipelagic: Water less than 200 meters
* Mesopelagic: Water between 200 and 1000meters
* Bathypelagic: Water between 1000 and 4000meters
* Abyssopelagic: Water deeper than 4000 meters
* Hadal: Depths below 6000 meters in deep sea trenches
Depth zones
Fig. 14-24. Depth zones
Sunlight penetration has its own divisions (Figure 14-25):
* Photic zone: The upper part of the ocean where sunlight penetrates
* Euphotic Zone: upper ½ of photic zone (usually to about 100 meters)
* Dysphotic Zone: lower ½ of photic zone
* Aphotic Zone: No light penetrates
Light in oceans
Fig. 14-25. Photic Zones
14.18

Zoning and Extinction in Marine Communities

Both physical and biological factors result in zoning of organisms in a specific environment.

Each group of organisms are affected by physical and biological factors (listed above). These conditions exist within geographically definable areas ranging from large (entire oceans) to microenvironments (such as a rock outcrop on a beach).

Extinction results when all members of a species dies off. Die offs happen when a local community is disrupted by changes in physical and biological factors. A species will survive when those factors return to tolerable conditions, and a nearby population can supply offspring to repopulate a location. With climate change, many areas are loosing species, causing local extinctions. Another factor is the introduction of non-native species that either out-compete native species, or modify the environment that make a habitat intolerable for survival of native species.
Mussels and sea life on a rock on Delmar Dog Beach, CA
Fig. 14-26. A lone rock on a beach is an example of a microenvironment.

14.19

Carrying Capacity in Marine Communities

Carrying capacity is the stable number of individuals in a community. Carrying capacity has limiting factors including living space, food availability, and the physical and biological factors (previously discussed). For example prey and predator populations have limits within a geographic area.

Example: Raise the temp 10 degrees C for a group of poikilothermic organisms with a limiting factor of food and hold other factors constant -- what is the most likely result?
Same problem but with homeothermic organisms?

Changes in physical and biological factors create opportunity and misfortune/bad luck, operating under natural selection (Adapt, move, or die!)

Local die-offs happen frequently; when all viable reproducing members of a "species" or "biological organization" die off it is extinction.

Global environmental changes and irresponsible exploitation are current driving forces of extinction.
Invasive Lion Fish
Fig. 14-27. Lionfish, native to the tropical Pacific, were introduced the Caribbean. These toxic beasts have no predators to control their population, and they are wiping out population of native species.
14.20
Distribution of Organisms - how are they distributed throughout an environmental setting?

i. Random: rare in marine environment
ii. Uniform: more common than random. Examples: eels in holes or penguins on nests
iii. Clustered: most common schooling fish. Examples clusters of barnacles and mussels on rocks.
iv. Zoned: species or community of species living together in a limited geographic range defined by physical and biological factors. Examples: oyster reef along an estuary with a limiting range in salinity.

Most organisms in marine environment are ZONED or CLUSTERED.
School of
Fig. 14-28. School of unicorn fish on a Hawaiian reef.
14.21

Symbiotic Relationships

* Mutualism: benefits both host and symbiant.
Example: Anemone and the anemone fish; fish cleans and feeds anemone,
stays with anemone for protection – fish can’t be stung (clown fish) (Figure 14-29)

* Commensalisms: no effect on host, benefits symbiant.
Example: Shark and pilot fish (pilot fish eats leftovers). Or barnacles attached to a humpback whale (Figure 14-30).

* Parasitism: Harms host, benefits symbiant.
Examples: Parasites in tuna. Humans catching and eating tuna (with parasites).
Clown fish on a sea anenome Barnacles on a humpback whale
Fig. 14-29. Clown fish living in a mutual relationship with a sea anemone. Fig. 14-30. Barnacles attached to a humpback whale.
14.22

Evolution in Marine Environments

Physical, chemical, and biological factors drive evolution in marine communities in the oceans and coastal waters. The life mission of any species is to "eat, survive, and reproduce." Every species is adapted to a limited range of physical, chemical, and biologic factors. When the conditions of the physical environment are ideal, a species, or community of species, can thrive and expand. However, if environmental changes occur that affect the range of factors they can tolerate, populations will decline from such factors of loss of body mass, reduced reproduction, diseases, and attrition from competition. Collapses in populations result in isolation of groups of individuals. These isolated groups, if they don't go extinct, become the nucleus of a subsequent population that may evolve into a new species over time, perhaps better adapted to expand their populations when environmental conditions become favorable. The ability to move or migrate in search of more favorable conditions is an important factor.
Evolution illustrated
Fig. 14-31. How evolution works.
14.23
Human consumption and interactions are the most influential driving force affecting species evolution and extinction in the world today. Humans have been extremely successful in their ability to adapt to new environments and to "eat, survive, and reproduce." Humans have essentially eliminated many "threats" (physical and biological) that have allowed the global human population to rise (through advances in agriculture, medicine, housing, transportation, technology, etc.). However, these "eliminations" have resulted in new threats. It took all of human history until about the year 1804 to reach a population of 1 billion. The next billion was added around 1927. Since then the global population is doubling with each generation. The amount of material and space consumed by humans have also been roughly doubling with each generation. The problem is that Earth has limited resources.

What is the carrying capacity for Humans on Earth?

Every human has an impact related to both environmental changes and to competition (with other humans and with other species). The effects of unmitigated human consumption of land and natural resources, and the introduction of invasive species by growing human populations are becoming increasingly obvious around the world. Can "we" collectively adapt? What role do we have as individuals in facing global environmental problems? What are the roles of government, corporate, and societal organizations? What defines "success" and "failure?" Can we move beyond "survival of the fittest?"

Past and projected human population growth
Fig. 14-32. Past and projected future human population growth. Question: how many humans can the world sustain, and at what cost to the "environment?"
Survival of the fittest means:
"Adapt, Move, or Die!"
Chapter 14 quiz questions
http://geologycafe.com/oceans/chapter14.html 1/1/2016