Introduction to Geology

Introduction to Geology

Quiz 14 - Shorelines and Oceans

1. Approximately how old is the oldest oceanic crust on the Earth today?
a. 6000 years
b. 200 thousand years
c. 2 million years
d. 180 million years
e. 2 billion years

2. The length, height, and period of a wave depend on:
a. the length of time the wind has blown.
b. wind speed.
c. the distance (fetch) the wind has traveled over open water.
d. all the above.

3. In proximity to shorelines, sea-swell waves break and transform into what type of waves?
a. shear waves
b. waves of oscillation
c. waves of refraction
d. waves of reflection
e. waves of translation

4. Low ridges of sand that parallel coastlines and rise above sea level are called:
a. barrier islands
b. seawalls
c. baymouth bars
d. offshore bars
e. wracklines

5. A water molecule in the open ocean wave illustrates what type of motion.
a. horizontal movement perpendicular to the direction of wave motion.
b. movement in a straight line, parallel to the direction of wave motion.
c. vertical movement perpendicular to the direction of wave motion.
d. movement in a circle.

6. When waves approach the beach at an angle, beach sediments move along the coastline in a process called:
a. tides.
b. longshore drift.
c. turbidity flow.
d. translation.
e. accumulation.

7. During a full moon, the gravitational forces of the Sun and Moon are maximized, producing:
a. very large ranges of tidal highs and lows.
b. very small ranges of tidal highs and lows.
c. neap tides
d. spring tides.
e. both a and d.
f. both b and c.

8. What is a guyot?
a. an active volcano erupting in an ocean basin
b. a rim of coral surrounding a seamount
c. a long, narrow feature that comprises the deepest part of the oceans
d. a flat-topped, submerged seamount
e. an underwater landslide deposit

9. Which of these describes a turbidity current?
a. produces deep-sea fans
b. a downslope movement of sediment-laden water
c. produces deposits showing graded bedding
d. a flow through a submarine canyon
e. all of the above

10. What part of a continental margin consists of deep-sea fans created by turbidity currents?
a. continental shelf
b. continental rise
c. accretionary wedge
d. continental slope
e. abyssal plain

Extra Credit: Which type of siliceous seafloor sediment consists of the shells and skeletal of small (microscopic) organisms?
a. coquina
b. ooze
c. shelf mud
d. reef
e. chert