Introduction to Geology

Introduction to Geology

Quiz 1 - Overview and Astronomy

1. Which of the following is the definition of geology?
a. The science of soils.
b. The study of minerals.
c. The study of the Earth.
d. The study of fossils.

2. The overall goal of science is:
a. to create better technology.
b. to develop hypotheses and theories.
c. to discover the origins of humans.
d. to find the origin of the universe.
e. to discover underlying patterns in the natural world.

3. Which of the following is a well-tested and widely accepted view that best explains certain observable facts?
a. theory
b. scientific method
c. rule
d. hypothesis
e. observation

4. A branch of geology concerned with the systematic study of bedded rock layers and their relations in time and the study of fossils and their locations in a sequence of bedded rocks is called:
a. stratigraphy.
b. assumption.
c. chronology.
d. catastrophism.

5. What is the name of the theory that generally states that "the physical, chemical, and biological laws that operate today have also operated in the geologic past."
a. hypothesis
b. superposition
c. uniformitarianism
d. historical geology
e. catastrophism

6. Who was scientist to first propose and publish a theory of natural selection, a fundamental part of the greater theory of biological evolution?.
a. Aristotle
b. Galileo
c. Carl Linnaeus
d. Charles Darwin

7. What is the outermost layer of the solid Earth.
a. the atmosphere
b. the hydrosphere
c. the mantle
d. the crust
e. the core

8. The portion of the atmosphere where all weather takes place and contains 80% of the air's mass, and 99% of water vapor is called:
a. stratosphere.
b. ozone layer.
c. troposphere.
d. thermosphere.

9. A force that causes deflection of currents in the oceans and atmosphere is called:
a. circulation.
b. gyres.
c. coriolis effect.
d. rock cycle.

10. What are the three general classes of rocks?
a. igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic.
b. minerals, soils, and rocks.
c. weathering, transportation, and deposition.
d. igneous, sedimentary, and molten.

11. Who was first to provide evidence that explained Heliocentrism Theory that the Sun, not the Earth, was the center of our Solar System?
a. Aristotle
b. Nicolaus Copernicus
c. Galileo Galilei
d. Johannes Kepler
e. Isaac Newton

12. Which scientist used observational information from earlier scientists to resolve the Law of Universal Gravitation?
a. Aristotle
b. Nicolaus Copernicus
c. Galileo Galilei
d. Johannes Kepler
e. Isaac Newton

13. A light year is the astronomical measure of:
a. the distance that light can travel in a year
b. approximately 9.4607 x 1012 kilometers
c. about 6 trillion miles.
d. all of the above.

14. The Milky Way is thought to be:
a. spiral galaxy.
b. an elliptical galaxy.
c. an irregular galaxy.
d. the Observable Universe.

15. According to the Big Bang Theory, the current estimates put the age of the Observable Universe is about:
a. 13.8 billion years
b. 11,000 thousand years
c. 6,000 years
d. 4.56 million years
e. 4.56 billion years

16. The birth place of stars and solar systems are interstellar clouds called a:
a. nebula.
b. constellation.
c. red giant.
d. nova.

17. The outermost layer of the Sun is:
a. the radiative zone.
b. the convection oxen.
c. the photosphere.
d. the chromosphere and corona.

18. What causes solar wind and solar storms?
a. large solar flares.
b. large solar prominences.
c. coronal mass ejections.
d. all of the above.

19. Which planets do not have moons?
a. Mercury and Venus
b. Mercury, Venus and Mars
c. Mercury, Venus, Jupiter, and Saturn
d. Mercury, Venus, Neptune, Uranus, and Neptune.

20. The Asteroid Belt is located between:
a. Venus and Earth.
b. Earth and Mars.
c. Mars and Jupiter.
d. Jupiter and Saturn.
e. Uranus and Neptune.

21. An object that enters the atmosphere and explodes with great force is called a:
a. galaxy.
b. comet.
c. asteroid.
d. bolide.
e. meteorite.

22. According to the Nebular Hypothesis of the Origin of the Solar System, the current estimate put the age of the Earth is about:
a. 13.8 billion years
b. 11,000 thousand years
c. 6,000 years
d. 4.56 million years
e. 4.56 billion years

23. The tilt in Earth's axis is theorized to have been caused by the collision of a Mars-sized object with the Proto Earth early in the formation of the Solar System. As a result, the Earth has 4 seasons. The day of the year when the north pole axis points closest to the Sun on the longest day of the year in the northern hemisphere is the:
a. winter solstice.
b. spring equinox.
c. summer solstace.
d. fall equinox.
e. summer equinox.

24. Which of the moons orbiting a planet in the outer solar system it thought to have twice as much water (volume of oceans) than planet Earth?
a. The Moon
b. Europa
c. Ganymede
d. Enceladus

Clues where to find answers.