Introduction to Earth Science

Introduction to Earth Science

Quiz 3 - Basic Geologic Principles & Maps

1. The "rock cycle" is a general portrayal of:
a. the processes that change earth materials.
b. the products of changes to earth materials.
c. the effects of changes to earth materials over time.
d. all of the above.

2. Rocks that form from changes to a pre-existing rocks under heat, pressure, or exposure to fluids (such as hot water or gases underground) are:
a. igneous rocks.
b. sediments.
c. sedimentary rocks.
d. metamorphic rocks.

3. Rocks are generally described as layered (stratified) or non-layered (unstratified). Which of the following would be considered a non-stratified type of rock?
a. sedimentary rocks
b. lava flows
c. granite.
d. all of the above.

4. Of the "basic geologic principles" which of the following would explain that an igneous intrusion is younger than the sedimentary rocks surrounding it?
a. Law of Original Horizontality.
b. Law of Superposition.
c. Law of Cross-Cutting Relationships.
d. Law of Unconformities.

5. The "Great Unconformity" exposed in the bottom of the Grand Canyon (near Phantom Ranch in Arizona) is what kind of unconformity?
a. a nonconformity
b. a disconformity
c. an angular unconformity
d. a gradational contact

6. Over time, sea level rises and falls. When sea level falls, the shallow sea floor become exposed and is subject to erosion. When sea level rises again, sediments may once again be able to be deposited on the sea floor, eventually being preserved as sedimentary rocks. When sea level falls it is called a:
a. transgression.
b. regression.
c. unconformity.
d. gradational contact.

7. Relative dating involves:
a. using radioactivity to find the age of a rock.
b. using the law of superposition to compare the ages of rock layers.
c. comparing fossils found in rock layers.
d. placing events in their proper sequence or order without knowing their exact age in years.
e. b, c and d.

8. The relative age of a volcanic intrusion might be determined by:
a) the Law of Original Horizontality
b) the Law of Superposition
c) the Law of Cross-Cutting Relationships
d) the Law of Angular Unconformities
9. A graphic representation of the intersection of the geological features in the subsurface with a vertical plane is called a:
a) geologic map.
b) cross section.
c) geophysical survey.
d) legend.
10. Topography is the arrangement of the natural and artificial physical features of an area. A topographic map is a graphical representation of a landscape showing selected natural and artificial landscape feature. The amount of change in elevation on the surface of the Earth is called:
a) contours.
b) relief.
c) height.
d) ceiling.

11. An explanation of symbols used on map, including colors, lines, icons, and symbols is called:
a) bibliography.
b) scale.
c) legend.
d) orientation.

12. The measurement or mapping of water depth (sea bed) beneath oceans, lakes, or other bodies of water is called:
a) bathymetry.
b) topography.
c) relief.
d) sonar.

13. Map scale refers to the relationship (or ratio) between distance on a map and the corresponding distance on the ground (relative to both miles and kilometers. On a standard USGS 7.5 minute quadrangle map, the scale is:
a) 1:24,000.
b) 1 inch = 2000 feet.
c) 1:100,000.
d) answers a and b.

14. The angular distance of a place north or south of the earth's equator, usually expressed in degrees and minutes, and is called:
a) latitude.
b) parallels.
c) longitude.
d) meridians.

15. One degree of latitude near the south pole is approximately:
a) zero miles.
b) 53 miles (85 kilometers)
c) 69 miles (111 kilometers)
d) 100 miles (161 kilometers)

16. In order to make an accurate map of the stars for use in ship navigation, in 1884, a point indicating the precise location of 0° East and West was designated in the cross hairs of a telescope in the Royal Observatory (located on the grounds of the National Maritime Museum in Greenwich England). This line marks the reference location of the Prime Meridian now used in all global mapping (including GPS location systems). The line on the opposite side of the globe at 180° from the Prime Meridian is called:
a) the Equator.
b) the Baseline.
c) the International Date Line.
d) all of the above.

17. It is difficult to make a flat map of the spherical globe. A commonly used type of map of the Earth that projects lines of longitude and latitude as a perpendicular grid of squares (and does not show lines converging at the north and south poles) is called a:
a) Lambert conical projection map.
b) Mercator projection map.
c) quadrangle projection map.
d) all of the above.

18. Public Land Survey System was used to subdivide land in most of the United States (excluding the 13 Colonies and Texas). The surveying involved measuring a grid of lines east-to-west and north-to-south starting with a designated initial point (such as a mountain peak like Mt. Diablo in central California). From an established initial point, a line running east-to-west was surveyed before lines north-to-south were mapped. This first survey line running east-to-west is called:
a) the Equator.
b) the Baseline.
c) the Prime Meridian.
d) the Range line.

19. A township is an area that has been mapped using the Public Land Survey System (PLSS). The name of the township usually includes the name of a town, ranch, or landscape feature in the area when it was first surveyed. Today is still commonly used for political boundary designations. In the PLSS most townships encompass an area of:
a) 12 square miles.
b) 24 square miles.
c) 36 square miles.
d) 48 square miles.

Use this map to answer the question below.
Map showing a township and range grid system.

20. In your new CSI investigative reporting job, you received a call from a desperate Nebraska farmer that says an unusual flying object came out a cloud and crash landed in one of his corn fields. He sends you a fax with part of a topographic map with a dot (next to an "X") showing where "the thing" has landed. You now have to report to the proper authorities how to find this location. It is located at:
a. NE, SW, Section 17, T1N, R2E.
b. SW, NE, Section 17, TIN, R1E.
c. NE, SW, Section 14, T1N, R1E.
d. SW, NE, Section 14, T1S, R1E.
e. none of the above.