Introduction to Earth Science

Introduction to Earth Science

Quiz 16 - Ocean Shorelines & Processes

1. It is currently estimated that 97.2% of water resources on Earth is in the world ocean. Most of the remainder is:
a) frozen in glaciers and ice caps.
b) trapped as groundwater and soil moisture.
c) stored in lakes, streams and reservoirs.
d) trapped as water vapor in the atmosphere.

2. Salt in seawater comes from:
a. the mechanical and chemical breakdown of rocks on land.
b. comes from salts dissolved in water running off of the continents.
c. the concentration of water through evaporation of ocean water.
d. all of the above.

3. Seawater is composed of water, dissolved matter (including solids and gas [as ions], and suspended matter (dust and organic residues). Of the ions in seawater (besides hydrogen and oxygen), the two most abundant elements are:
a) sodium and calcium
b) chlorine and sodium
c) calcium and sulphate (SO4)
d) magnesium and potassium

4. The salinity of seawater varies slightly from one part of the ocean to another, however, the average salinity of the oceans is about:
a) 4% (ppt).
b) 17‰ (ppt).
c) 35‰ (ppt).
d) 40‰ (ppt).

10. Which of the relationships of temperature, salinity, and density of seawater is NOT true?
a) as temperature increases, density decreases.
b) as salinity increases, density increases.
c) as temperature changes, salinity remains the same.
d) as density increases, temperature increases.

11. Global data measurements of precipitation and evaporation show patterns of all EXCEPT which of the following.
a) The temperate regions receive more precipitation than tropical regions.
b) The polar regions have receive more precipitation than evaporates.
c) The temperate regions receive less precipitation than evaporates.
d) The tropics (equatorial region) receives much more rain than evaporates.

12. A thermocline is a layer of water at the ocean surface that prevents the upwelling and mixing of cool nutrient-rich water to ocean surface waters, reducing the production of primary plankton (food) for marine life. What is the best description of thermoclines based on latitude?
a) Polar regions have well-developed thermoclines in winter months.
b) Temperate regions have strong thermoclines in the winter months.
c) Tropical region have no thermocline in winter months.
d) Temperate regions have weak thermoclines (moderate in summer, less in winter)

13. Because the Earth is rotating, this rotation causes an observable deflection in both the fluid atmosphere and oceans:
a) moving water is deflected to the right in the Northern Hemisphere.
b) moving water is deflected to the left in the Southern Hemisphere.
c) there is no coriolis effect at the equator.
d) all of the above.

14. In ocean basins, the coriolis effect helps creates large, circular ocean currents called:
a) gyres.
b) cyclones.
c) typhoons.
d) anticyclones.

15. What primarily drives the surface ocean currents?
a) density differences between water bodies.
b) rotation of the earth.
c) coriolis forces.
d) winds.

16. The current that flows along the East Coast of North America until it is deflected to the right by westerly winds is called the:
a) Gulf Stream
b) North Atlantic Drift
c) North Equatorial Current
d) Florida Current.

17. Only one ocean current flows unimpeded (without obstruction or barriers) around Earth. It is named the:
a) Gulf Stream Current
b) California Current
c) Antarctic Circumpolar Current
d) Aghulas Current

18. Under what conditions does coastal upwelling commonly occur?
a) Only where biotic productivity is high enough to sustain it.
b) Only on the eastern coasts of continents.
c) Where winds blow toward shore or Ekman flow carries surface water toward shore.
d) Where winds blow away from shore or Ekman flow carries surface water away from shore.

19. Based on historical data, how does El Niño conditions generally impact Southern California?
a) ocean water temperatures are higher (impacting sea life), and there is typically increased rainfall in the rainy season.
b) ocean water temperatures are lower (impacting sea life), and there is typically increased rainfall in the rainy season.
c) ocean water temperatures are higher (impacting sea life), and there is typically less rainfall in the rainy season.
d) ocean water temperatures are lower (impacting sea life), and there is typically less rainfall in the rainy season.

20. The time it takes for one full wave to pass a fixed position is called:
a) wave period.
b) wave height.
c) wave fetch.
d) wavelength.

21. The vertical distance between the trough of a wave and the crest of a wave is called:
a) wave height.
b) wave period.
c) fetch.
d) wavelength.

22. What determines wave speed in the open oceans?
a) Wave period.
b) Wavelength.
c) Wind velocity.
d) All of the above.

23. The region where storm winds blowing over the ocean surface generating waves is called a:
a) swell.
b) sea.
c) cyclone.
d) tsunami.

24. Groups of waves that move out of area where waves are generated by strong storm winds and travel long distances across ocean basins are called:
a) seas.
b) cyclones.
c) swells.
d) tsunamis.

25. As waves move along the surface of the water, what do water particles do?
a) They move back and forth in a direction parallel to wave motion.
b) They move back and forth in a direction perpendicular to wave motion.
c) They move along the crests of waves and can travel thousands of miles.
d) They oscillate in circles whose diameters decrease with depth.

26. In deep water in the open ocean, how deep in water do surface waves cause particle motion?
a) about 1/2 of the wavelength of passing water waves.
b) Exactly twice the wave height.
c) About twice the wavelength.
d) About twice the wave period.

27. What is “surf?”
a) Fully-developed waves generated by strong winds.
b) Waves moving out of the generating area.
c) Where waves steepen and build up near shore.
d) Waves moving into shallow water as turbulent front that moves onto the beach.

28. What happens to waves when they reach shallow water?
a) They become waves of oscillation.
b) They slow down and become waves of transition.
c) They speed up.
d) They veer to the left.

27. Waves break when:
a) when the water depth (d) is about the same as the wave height (h).
b) where the water depth is about one half of its wavelength
c) the slope of the wave reaches a ratio of about 7:1 (7 long to 1 high).
d) all of the above.

28. The bending of waves so that they are more parallel to the shore is called:
a) diffraction.
b) reflection.
c) refraction.
d) translation.

29. The force primarily responsible for tides is:
a) gravity
b) friction
c) the Coriolis effect
d) wind pressure

30. What is the relative tidal force of the Sun and Moon?
a) The Sun and Moon exert equal tidal forces on the earth.
b) The Sun exerts about twice the tidal force of the Moon.
c) The Sun exerts three times the tidal force of the Moon.
d) The Moon exerts about twice the tidal force of the sun.

31. When water currents flows out to sea as tide levels fall is called a:
a) ebb tide.
b) spring tide.
c) flood tide.
d) neap tide.

32. When the Moon is closest to the earth is called:
a) apogee
b) perigee
c) aphelion
d) perihelion

33. When do Spring tides occur?
a) during new moon & full moon phases.
b) during first quarter & third quarter phases.
c) In March and April in the northern hemisphere.
d) none of the above.

34. How many high tides occur per day in most coastal areas (including San Diego)?
a) 1.
b) 2.
c) 3.
d) 4.

35. The intertidal zone is:
a) the area between the high tide mark and dunes, a sea cliff, or permanent vegetation.
b) the area between the low and high tide marks.
c) a platform formed by depositional processes along the beach.
d) the area between the beach and a barrier island.

36. The zone that is the typically vegetation free "splash or spray" above the high water line where back-beach dunes accumulate is called:
a) subtidal
b) intertidal
c) supratidal
d) wrackline

37. The region on the East Coast (including the Delmarva Peninsula, Chesapeake Bay, and Delaware Bay) is what kind of Coast?
a) Ria coast
b) Deltaic coast
c) Glacial coast
d) Fault/tectonic coast

38. Which of the following is not a depositional coastal landform?
a) spit
b) baymouth bar
c) beach
d) sea arch

39. Barrier island beaches generally develop where:
a) The coast is composed of hard rock.
b) The nearby land has a rugged topography of hills and mountains.
c) The sea floor deepens rapidly offshore.
d) The sea floor remains shallow for a long distance offshore.

40. During stormy periods in winter:
a) There is a higher percentage of fine-grained sand on beaches.
b) More erosion occurs in bays than on headlands.
c) Beaches are eroded and the sand moves to offshore bars.
d) Offshore sand bars are eroded and beaches are built up.

41. How are longshore currents best described?
a) They involve movement of water perpendicular to the shoreline.
b) They involve movement of water toward the shoreline.
c) They involve movement of water parallel to the shoreline.
d) They involve movement of water away from the shoreline.

42. What is significant about longshore currents:
a) are agents of erosion along shorelines.
b) are agents of deposition along shorelines.
c) move in directions dependent on the direction of the dominant incoming swell.
d) All of the above.

43. A strong current associated with the swift movement of water through inlets and the mouths of estuaries, embayments, and harbors is called a:
a) longshore drift.
b) longshore current.
c) rip current.
d) rip tide.

44. Construction of dams upstream on rivers flowing to the coast may lead to:
a) Narrower beaches
b) Wider beaches
c) The filling in of bays
d) The building of a barrier island

45. An artificial barrier built at a right angle to the beach to trap sand that is moving parallel to the shore is known as a:
a) groin.
b) stack.
c) seawall.
d) breakwater.