Introduction to Earth Science

Introduction to Earth Science and Astronomy

Quiz 1 - The "Big Picture"

1. The tentative explanation for an observation, phenomenon, or scientific problem that can be tested by further investigation is called a:
a. fact.
b. theory.
c. hypothesis.
d. observation.
e. scientific law.

2. A pure chemical substance consisting of one type of atom distinguished by its atomic number is called:
a. an atom.
b. an element.
c. a nucleus.
d. a proton.

3. Chemical substances classed as “salts” are held together by:
a) covalent bonds.
b) ionic bonds.
c) metallic bonds.
d) Van der Waal bonds.
e) none of the above.

4. Isotopes of an element have:
a) the same number of protons and neutrons.
b) the same number of neutrons, but different number of protons.
c) the same number of protons, but different number of electrons.
d) different numbers of electrons, neutrons and protons.

5. What part of the electromagnetic spectrum listed below has the "greatest energy" (based on highest frequency or shortest wavelength)?
a. UV (ultraviolet rays)
b. visible light
c. thermal infrared rays
d. microwaves
e. radio waves

6. The scientist to first resolve and present the "law of universal gravitation" was:
a. Aristotle.
b. Galileo Galilei.
c. Copernicus.
d. Johannes Kepler.
e. Isaac Newton.

2. What is the name of the theory that states "the physical, chemical, and biological laws that operate today have also operated in the geologic past."
a. catastrophism
b. superposition
c. uniformitarianism
d. historical geology
e. observation

7. Current estimates put the age of the Earth at about:
a. 13.8 billion years.
b. 11,000 thousand years.
c. 6,000 years.
d. 4.55 million years.
e. 4.56 billion years.

8. The part of the atmosphere where that contains 99 percent of its water vapor and where all 'weather" takes place is called:
a. the cryosphere.
b. the troposphere.
c. the stratosphere.
d. the thermosphere.
e. the hydrosphere.

9. Who discovered that there are other galaxies outside of the Milky Way galaxy (greatly expanding our knowledge of the size of the Universe)?
a. Aristotle
b. Galileo Galilei
c. Isaac Newton
d. Edwin Hubble

9. An interstellar cloud within a galaxy consisting of gas and dust, typically glowing from radiant energy from stars nearby or within them is called:
a. a bollide.
b. a nebula.
c. a constellation.
d. a nova.

10. The outermost layer of the Sun that is a thin solar atmosphere that expels streaming hot plasma into space is called:
a. the Chromosphere.
b. The Convection Zone.
c. The Photosphere.
d. the Radiative Zone.

11. Coronal mass ejections from the Sun produce solar flares and prominences are responsible for:
a. the solar wind.
b. "solar storms."
c. the Aurora Borealis.
d. interference of radio communications.
e. all of the above.

12. Which is not a "rocky planet."
a. Mercury.
b. Venus.
c. Mars
d. Jupiter
e. Europa

13. The Asteroid Belt is located between:
a. Venus and Earth.
b. Earth and Mars.
c. Mars and Jupiter.
d. Jupiter and Saturn.
e. Uranus and Neptune.

14. An object that enters the atmosphere and explodes with great force is called a:
a. galaxy.
b. comet.
c. asteroid.
d. bolide.
e. meteorite.

15. Current theory about the origin of the Moon is which of the following.
a. It formed as a separate planet but was captured by gravitation by the Earth.
b. It formed from the material ejected from the Earth cause by the collision of another massive planet-like object colliding with Earth.
c. It formed from a nebula orbiting the Sun.
d. An ancient alien culture thought Earth would be better off it it had a moon.

16. Which celestial object in the Solar System has about twice the volume of oceans than on the planet Earth?
a. Venus.
b. Titan.
c. Europa.
d. Ganymede.
e. Enceladus.

Extra Credit:
List the nine planets in correct order from the Sun outward. Next to the name, put an "M" if it has moons, an "A" if it has an atmosphere.